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Meine Schwerpunkte sind minimalinvasive und rekonstruktive Operationen an Hüfte und Knie als auch an der Wirbelsäule inklusive Skoliosechirurgie. Entsprechend meiner Ausbildung an führenden orthopädischen Abteilungen in Österreich und der Schweiz kann ich Ihnen einen Großteil des orthopädischen. Justin Bonomo (* September in Fairfax, Virginia) ist ein professioneller US-amerikanischer Pokerspieler. Bonomo gilt als einer der besten. Bonomo ist ein italienischer Familienname, abgeleitet von einem gleichlautenden mittelalterlichen Vornamen aus dem 8. Jahrhundert mit der Bedeutung „guter. Dr. Johannes Bonomo ➔ Finden Sie Bewertungen und Erfahrungsberichte von Patienten, Kontaktdaten, Krankenkassen, Ordinationszeiten, Spezialisierungen.

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Importantly, spontaneous affiliation followed the empathic gradient described for humans, being mostly offered to kin, then friends, then acquaintances these categories having been determined using affiliation rates between individuals.

Hence, consolation in the bonobo may be an empathy-based phenomenon. Instances in which non-human primates have expressed joy have been reported.

One study analyzed and recorded sounds made by human infants and bonobos when they were tickled. Bonobos are found only south of the Congo River and north of the Kasai River a tributary of the Congo , [88] in the humid forests of the Democratic Republic of Congo.

The IUCN Red List classifies bonobos as an endangered species , with conservative population estimates ranging from 29, to 50, individuals.

This is part of a more general trend of ape extinction. As the bonobos' habitat is shared with people, the ultimate success of conservation efforts still rely on local and community involvement.

The issue of parks versus people [90] is salient in the Cuvette Centrale the bonobos' range. There is strong local and broad-based Congolese resistance to establishing national parks, as indigenous communities have often been driven from their forest homes by the establishment of parks.

In Salonga National Park, the only national park in the bonobo habitat, there is no local involvement, and surveys undertaken since indicate the bonobo, the African forest elephant , and other species have been devastated by poachers and the thriving bushmeat trade.

During the wars in the s, researchers and international non-governmental organizations NGOs were driven out of the bonobo habitat.

The Peace Forest Project works with local communities to establish a linked constellation of community-based reserves, managed by local and indigenous people.

According to Dr. Amy Parish, the Bonobo Peace Forest "is going to be a model for conservation in the 21st century".

The port town of Basankusu is situated on the Lulonga River , at the confluence of the Lopori and Maringa Rivers, in the north of the country, making it well placed to receive and transport local goods to the cities of Mbandaka and Kinshasa.

With Basankusu being the last port of substance before the wilderness of the Lopori Basin and the Lomako River—the bonobo heartland—conservation efforts for the bonobo [93] use the town as a base.

In , concern over declining numbers of bonobos in the wild led the Zoological Society of Milwaukee, in Milwaukee, Wisconsin , with contributions from bonobo scientists around the world, to publish the Action Plan for Pan paniscus : A Report on Free Ranging Populations and Proposals for their Preservation.

The Action Plan compiles population data on bonobos from 20 years of research conducted at various sites throughout the bonobo's range.

The plan identifies priority actions for bonobo conservation and serves as a reference for developing conservation programs for researchers, government officials, and donor agencies.

This program includes habitat and rain-forest preservation, training for Congolese nationals and conservation institutions, wildlife population assessment and monitoring, and education.

The Zoological Society has conducted regional surveys within the range of the bonobo in conjunction with training Congolese researchers in survey methodology and biodiversity monitoring.

As the project has developed, the Zoological Society has become more involved in helping the Congolese living in bonobo habitat.

The Zoological Society has built schools, hired teachers, provided some medicines, and started an agriculture project to help the Congolese learn to grow crops and depend less on hunting wild animals.

Embassy, the World Wildlife Fund, and many other groups and individuals, the Zoological Society also has been working to:.

Starting in , the U. This significant investment has triggered the involvement of international NGOs to establish bases in the region and work to develop bonobo conservation programs.

This initiative should improve the likelihood of bonobo survival, but its success still may depend upon building greater involvement and capability in local and indigenous communities.

The bonobo population is believed to have declined sharply in the last 30 years, though surveys have been hard to carry out in war-ravaged central Congo.

Estimates range from 60, to fewer than 50, living, according to the World Wildlife Fund. In addition, concerned parties have addressed the crisis on several science and ecological websites.

Organizations such as the World Wide Fund for Nature , the African Wildlife Foundation , and others, are trying to focus attention on the extreme risk to the species.

Some have suggested that a reserve be established in a more stable part of Africa, or on an island in a place such as Indonesia.

Awareness is ever increasing, and even nonscientific or ecological sites have created various groups to collect donations to help with the conservation of this species.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. One of two species in the genus Pan, along with the chimpanzee.

For other uses, see Bonobo disambiguation and Bonobos disambiguation. Conservation status. Schwarz , Wilson, D.

Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. Bonobo: The Forgotten Ape. University of California Press. The New York Times. Retrieved September 10, Basics in Human Evolution.

Elsevier Science. Scientific Reports. The New Yorker. Retrieved 19 December Kanzi: the ape at the brink of the human mind. Our Inner Ape.

Riverhead Books. Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaines. July—September Pigmy chimpanzee from south of the Congo river".

American Journal of Physical Anthropology. Coolidge's paper contains a translation of Schwarz's earlier report. Retrieved 21 December Harvard University Press.

New Scientist. Bibcode : NewSc. Bibcode : Natur. In Sequence. Genome Web. Retrieved Theoretical Population Biology. Freedom Book 1.

Part G. Anthropological Review. Archived from the original on DK Adult. Walker's Mammals of the World. Am J Phys Anthropol. Journal of Anatomy.

Berghahn Books. Bibcode : Sci Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues, News, and Reviews. Current Anthropology.

Great ape societies. Do bonobos really spend all their time having sex? December Primate Factsheets: Bonobo Pan paniscus behavior.

International Journal of Primatology. March Scientific American. Bibcode : SciAm. Archived from the original PDF on 27 January Woman: An Intimate Geography.

Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. American Journal of Primatology. Animal Behaviour. Basic Books. African Study Monographs.

Animal Diversity Web. Retrieved 6 January Feierman ed. Springer, New York. Sharp; George M. Shaw; Beatrice H. Hahn Journal of Virology. The Economist.

June 24, Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. Smithsonian Magazine. McVean, Gil ed. PLOS Genet. Retrieved on Current Biology. Vineberg Our Far-Flung Correspondents.

The Huffington Post. BBC News. New Scientist 1 February The International Journal of Inclusive Democracy. August 4, Sue; Rumbaugh, Duane; Sevcik, Rose Journal of Archaeological Science.

Am J Primatol. Bibcode : PLoSO ABC Science Online. The Ancestor's Tale. In , he was accused of account sharing with his friend Isaac Haxton by Prahlad Friedman.

Justin Bonomo lives in Las Vegas in the Panorama Towers , residence to more than 70 professional poker players. Bonomo practices polyamory.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. American poker player. Retrieved June 21, The Hendon Mob Poker Database. Retrieved August 9, September Archived from the original on March 16, Retrieved March 16, Retrieved May 5, Retrieved July 1, Poker News Daily.

March 16, Methuselah Foundation Blog.

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The exact timing of the Pan — Homo last common ancestor is contentious, but DNA comparison suggests continual interbreeding between ancestral Pan and Homo groups, post-divergence, until about 4 million years ago.

Currently, these two species are separated by the Congo River, which had existed well before the divergence date, though ancestral Pan may have dispersed across the river using corridors which no longer exist.

According to A. Zihlman, bonobo body proportions closely resemble those of Australopithecus , [23] leading evolutionary biologist Jeremy Griffith to suggest that bonobos may be a living example of our distant human ancestors.

The bonobo is commonly considered to be more gracile than the common chimpanzee. Although large male chimpanzees can exceed any bonobo in bulk and weight, the two species actually broadly overlap in body size.

Adult female bonobos are somewhat smaller than adult males. It has a black face with pink lips, small ears, wide nostrils, and long hair on its head that forms a parting.

Females have slightly more prominent breasts, in contrast to the flat breasts of other female apes, although not so prominent as those of humans.

The bonobo also has a slim upper body, narrow shoulders, thin neck, and long legs when compared to the common chimpanzee. Bonobos are both terrestrial and arboreal.

Most ground locomotion is characterized by quadrupedal knuckle walking. Bipedal walking in captivity, as a percentage of bipedal plus quadrupedal locomotion bouts, has been observed from 3.

The bonobo also has highly individuated facial features, [33] as humans do, so that one individual may look significantly different from another, a characteristic adapted for visual facial recognition in social interaction.

Multivariate analysis has shown bonobos are more neotenized than the common chimpanzee, taking into account such features as the proportionately long torso length of the bonobo.

Primatologist Frans de Waal states bonobos are capable of altruism , compassion , empathy , kindness, patience, and sensitivity , [3] and described "bonobo society" as a " gynecocracy ".

An analysis of female bonding among wild bonobos by Takeshi Furuichi stresses female sexuality and shows how female bonobos spend much more time in estrus than female chimpanzees.

Some primatologists have argued that de Waal's data reflect only the behavior of captive bonobos, suggesting that wild bonobos show levels of aggression closer to what is found among chimpanzees.

De Waal has responded that the contrast in temperament between bonobos and chimpanzees observed in captivity is meaningful, because it controls for the influence of environment.

The two species behave quite differently even if kept under identical conditions. The authors argued that the relative peacefulness of western chimpanzees and bonobos was primarily due to ecological factors.

Many studies indicate that females have a higher social status in bonobo society. Aggressive encounters between males and females are rare, and males are tolerant of infants and juveniles.

A male derives his status from the status of his mother. While social hierarchies do exist, and although the son of a high ranking female may outrank a lower female, rank plays a less prominent role than in other primate societies.

Due to the promiscuous mating behavior of female bonobos, a male cannot be sure which offspring are his. As a result, the entirety of parental care in bonobos is assumed by the mothers.

Unlike chimpanzees, where any male can coerce a female into mating with him, female bonobos enjoy greater sexual preferences, an advantage of female-female bonding, and actively seek out higher-ranking males.

Bonobo party size tends to vary because the groups exhibit a fission—fusion pattern. A community of approximately will split into small groups during the day while looking for food, and then will come back together to sleep.

They sleep in nests that they construct in trees. In captive settings, females exhibit extreme food-based aggression towards males, and forge coalitions against them to monopolize specific food items, often going as far as to mutilate any males who fail to heed their warning.

In wild settings, however, female bonobos are not above begging males for food, suggesting sex-based hierarchy roles are less rigid than in captive colonies.

Sexual activity generally plays a major role in bonobo society, being used as what some scientists perceive as a greeting , a means of forming social bonds, a means of conflict resolution , and postconflict reconciliation.

Bonobos do not form permanent monogamous sexual relationships with individual partners. They also do not seem to discriminate in their sexual behavior by sex or age, with the possible exception of abstaining from sexual activity between mothers and their adult sons.

When bonobos come upon a new food source or feeding ground, the increased excitement will usually lead to communal sexual activity, presumably decreasing tension and encouraging peaceful feeding.

Bonobo clitorises are larger and more externalized than in most mammals; [52] while the weight of a young adolescent female bonobo "is maybe half" that of a human teenager, she has a clitoris that is "three times bigger than the human equivalent, and visible enough to waggle unmistakably as she walks".

This sexual activity happens within the immediate female bonobo community and sometimes outside of it. Ethologist Jonathan Balcombe stated that female bonobos rub their clitorises together rapidly for ten to twenty seconds, and this behavior, "which may be repeated in rapid succession, is usually accompanied by grinding, shrieking, and clitoral engorgement"; he added that it is estimated that they engage in this practice "about once every two hours" on average.

Bonobo males engage in various forms of male—male genital behavior. Another form of genital interaction rump rubbing often occurs to express reconciliation between two males after a conflict, when they stand back-to-back and rub their scrotal sacs together, but such behavior also occurs outside agonistic contexts: Kitamura observed rump—rump contacts between adult males following sexual solicitation behaviors similar to those between female bonobos prior to GG-rubbing.

Tongue kissing, oral sex, and genital massaging have also been recorded among male bonobos. More often than the males, female bonobos engage in mutual genital behavior, possibly to bond socially with each other, thus forming a female nucleus of bonobo society.

The bonding among females enables them to dominate most of the males. This migration mixes the bonobo gene pools , providing genetic diversity.

Sexual bonding with other females establishes these new females as members of the group. Bonobo reproductive rates are no higher than those of the common chimpanzee.

The gestation period is on average days. Postpartum amenorrhea absence of menstruation lasts less than one year and a female may resume external signs of oestrus within a year of giving birth, though the female is probably not fertile at this point.

Female bonobos carry and nurse their young for four years and give birth on average every 4. Also, bonobo females which are sterile or too young to reproduce still engage in sexual activity.

Mothers will help their sons get more matings from females in oestrus. It is unknown how the bonobo avoids simian immunodeficiency virus SIV and its effects.

Observations in the wild indicate that the males among the related common chimpanzee communities are hostile to males from outside the community.

Parties of males 'patrol' for the neighboring males that might be traveling alone, and attack those single males, often killing them.

While bonobos are more peaceful than chimpanzees, it is not true that they are unaggressive. The ranges of bonobos and chimpanzees are separated by the Congo River, with bonobos living to the south of it, and chimpanzees to the north.

Recent studies show that there are significant brain differences between bonobos and chimps. The brain anatomy of bonobos has more developed and larger regions assumed to be vital for feeling empathy, sensing distress in others and feeling anxiety, which makes them less aggressive and more empathic than their close relatives.

They also have a thick connection between the amygdala , an important area that can spark aggression, and the ventral anterior cingulate cortex, which helps control impulses.

This thicker connection may make them better at regulating their emotional impulses and behavior. Bonobo society is dominated by females, and severing the lifelong alliance between mothers and their male offspring may make them vulnerable to female aggression.

There would obviously be no need for peacemaking if they lived in perfect harmony. Surbeck and Hohmann showed in that bonobos sometimes do hunt monkey species.

Five incidents were observed in a group of bonobos in Salonga National Park , which seemed to reflect deliberate cooperative hunting.

On three occasions, the hunt was successful, and infant monkeys were captured and eaten. Bonobos are capable of passing the mirror-recognition test for self-awareness , [79] as are all great apes.

They communicate primarily through vocal means, although the meanings of their vocalizations are not currently known.

However, most humans do understand their facial expressions [80] and some of their natural hand gestures, such as their invitation to play.

The communication system of wild bonobos includes a characteristic that was earlier only known in humans: bonobos use the same call to mean different things in different situations, and the other bonobos have to take the context into account when determining the meaning.

Kanzi's vocabulary consists of more than English words, [82] and he has comprehension of around 3, spoken English words. Some, such as philosopher and bioethicist Peter Singer , argue that these results qualify them for " rights to survival and life "—rights which humans theoretically accord to all persons See great ape personhood.

In the s, Kanzi was taught to make and use simple stone tools. The researchers wanted to know if Kanzi possessed the cognitive and biomechanical abilities required to make and use stone tools.

Though Kanzi was able to form flakes, he did not create them in same way as humans, who hold the core in one hand and knap it with the other, Kanzi threw the cobble against a hard surface or against another cobble.

This allowed him to produce a larger force to initiate a fracture as opposed to knapping it in his hands. As in other great apes and humans, third party affiliation toward the victim—the affinitive contact made toward the recipient of an aggression by a group member other than the aggressor—is present in bonobos.

Yet, only spontaneous affiliation reduced victim anxiety—measured via self-scratching rates—thus suggesting not only that non-solicited affiliation has a consolatory function but also that the spontaneous gesture—more than the protection itself—works in calming the distressed subject.

The authors hypothesize that the victim may perceive the motivational autonomy of the bystander, who does not require an invitation to provide post-conflict affinitive contact.

Moreover, spontaneous—but not solicited—third party affiliation was affected by the bond between consoler and victim this supporting the Consolation Hypothesis.

Importantly, spontaneous affiliation followed the empathic gradient described for humans, being mostly offered to kin, then friends, then acquaintances these categories having been determined using affiliation rates between individuals.

Hence, consolation in the bonobo may be an empathy-based phenomenon. Instances in which non-human primates have expressed joy have been reported.

One study analyzed and recorded sounds made by human infants and bonobos when they were tickled. Bonobos are found only south of the Congo River and north of the Kasai River a tributary of the Congo , [88] in the humid forests of the Democratic Republic of Congo.

The IUCN Red List classifies bonobos as an endangered species , with conservative population estimates ranging from 29, to 50, individuals.

This is part of a more general trend of ape extinction. As the bonobos' habitat is shared with people, the ultimate success of conservation efforts still rely on local and community involvement.

The issue of parks versus people [90] is salient in the Cuvette Centrale the bonobos' range. There is strong local and broad-based Congolese resistance to establishing national parks, as indigenous communities have often been driven from their forest homes by the establishment of parks.

In Salonga National Park, the only national park in the bonobo habitat, there is no local involvement, and surveys undertaken since indicate the bonobo, the African forest elephant , and other species have been devastated by poachers and the thriving bushmeat trade.

During the wars in the s, researchers and international non-governmental organizations NGOs were driven out of the bonobo habitat. The Peace Forest Project works with local communities to establish a linked constellation of community-based reserves, managed by local and indigenous people.

According to Dr. Amy Parish, the Bonobo Peace Forest "is going to be a model for conservation in the 21st century". The port town of Basankusu is situated on the Lulonga River , at the confluence of the Lopori and Maringa Rivers, in the north of the country, making it well placed to receive and transport local goods to the cities of Mbandaka and Kinshasa.

With Basankusu being the last port of substance before the wilderness of the Lopori Basin and the Lomako River—the bonobo heartland—conservation efforts for the bonobo [93] use the town as a base.

In , concern over declining numbers of bonobos in the wild led the Zoological Society of Milwaukee, in Milwaukee, Wisconsin , with contributions from bonobo scientists around the world, to publish the Action Plan for Pan paniscus : A Report on Free Ranging Populations and Proposals for their Preservation.

The Action Plan compiles population data on bonobos from 20 years of research conducted at various sites throughout the bonobo's range.

The plan identifies priority actions for bonobo conservation and serves as a reference for developing conservation programs for researchers, government officials, and donor agencies.

This program includes habitat and rain-forest preservation, training for Congolese nationals and conservation institutions, wildlife population assessment and monitoring, and education.

The Zoological Society has conducted regional surveys within the range of the bonobo in conjunction with training Congolese researchers in survey methodology and biodiversity monitoring.

As the project has developed, the Zoological Society has become more involved in helping the Congolese living in bonobo habitat.

The Zoological Society has built schools, hired teachers, provided some medicines, and started an agriculture project to help the Congolese learn to grow crops and depend less on hunting wild animals.

Embassy, the World Wildlife Fund, and many other groups and individuals, the Zoological Society also has been working to:. Starting in , the U.

This significant investment has triggered the involvement of international NGOs to establish bases in the region and work to develop bonobo conservation programs.

This initiative should improve the likelihood of bonobo survival, but its success still may depend upon building greater involvement and capability in local and indigenous communities.

The bonobo population is believed to have declined sharply in the last 30 years, though surveys have been hard to carry out in war-ravaged central Congo.

Estimates range from 60, to fewer than 50, living, according to the World Wildlife Fund. In addition, concerned parties have addressed the crisis on several science and ecological websites.

Organizations such as the World Wide Fund for Nature , the African Wildlife Foundation , and others, are trying to focus attention on the extreme risk to the species.

Some have suggested that a reserve be established in a more stable part of Africa, or on an island in a place such as Indonesia.

Awareness is ever increasing, and even nonscientific or ecological sites have created various groups to collect donations to help with the conservation of this species.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. One of two species in the genus Pan, along with the chimpanzee. For other uses, see Bonobo disambiguation and Bonobos disambiguation.

Conservation status. Schwarz , Wilson, D. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. September Archived from the original on March 16, Retrieved March 16, Retrieved May 5, Retrieved July 1, Poker News Daily.

March 16, Methuselah Foundation Blog. Retrieved on July 5, Note number in brackets represents the number of bracelets earned in that year.

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