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When they do manage to make contact with a conductive portion of the main leader network, a return stroke-like process occurs and a dart leader travels across all or a portion of the length of the original leader.
The dart leaders making connections with the ground are what cause a majority of subsequent return strokes.
Each successive stroke is preceded by intermediate dart leader strokes that have a faster rise time but lower amplitude than the initial return stroke.
Each subsequent stroke usually re-uses the discharge channel taken by the previous one, but the channel may be offset from its previous position as wind displaces the hot channel.
Since recoil and dart leader processes do not occur on negative leaders, subsequent return strokes very seldom utilize the same channel on positive ground flashes which are explained later in the article.
The electric current within a typical negative CG lightning discharge rises very quickly to its peak value in 1—10 microseconds, then decays more slowly over 50— microseconds.
The transient nature of the current within a lightning flash results in several phenomena that need to be addressed in the effective protection of ground-based structures.
Rapidly changing currents tend to travel on the surface of a conductor, in what is called the skin effect , unlike direct currents, which "flow-through" the entire conductor like water through a hose.
Hence, conductors used in the protection of facilities tend to be multi-stranded, with small wires woven together.
This increases the total bundle surface area in inverse proportion to the individual strand radius, for a fixed total cross-sectional area.
The rapidly changing currents also create electromagnetic pulses EMPs that radiate outward from the ionic channel. This is a characteristic of all electrical discharges.
The radiated pulses rapidly weaken as their distance from the origin increases. However, if they pass over conductive elements such as power lines, communication lines, or metallic pipes, they may induce a current which travels outward to its termination.
The surge current is inversely related to the Surge impedance Devices known as surge protectors SPD or transient voltage surge suppressors TVSS attached in parallel with these lines can detect the lightning flash's transient irregular current, and, through alteration of its physical properties, route the spike to an attached earthing ground , thereby protecting the equipment from damage.
There are variations of each type, such as "positive" versus "negative" CG flashes, that have different physical characteristics common to each which can be measured.
Different common names used to describe a particular lightning event may be attributed to the same or different events. Cloud-to-ground CG lightning is a lightning discharge between a thundercloud and the ground.
It is initiated by a stepped leader moving down from the cloud, which is met by a streamer moving up from the ground. CG is the least common, but best understood of all types of lightning.
It is easier to study scientifically, because it terminates on a physical object, namely the Earth, and lends itself to being measured by instruments on the ground.
Of the three primary types of lightning, it poses the greatest threat to life and property since it terminates or "strikes" the Earth.
The overall discharge, termed a flash, is composed of a number of processes such as preliminary breakdown, stepped leaders, connecting leaders, return strokes, dart leaders and subsequent return strokes.
Cloud-to-ground CG lightning is either positive or negative, as defined by the direction of the conventional electric current between cloud and ground.
Most CG lightning is negative, meaning that a negative charge is transferred to ground and electrons travel downward along the lightning channel conventially the current flows from the ground to the cloud.
The reverse happens in a positive CG flash, where electrons travel upward along the lightning channel and a positive charge is transferred to the ground conventially the current flows from the cloud to the ground.
There are six different mechanisms theorized to result in the formation of positive lightning. Contrary to popular belief, positive lightning flashes do not necessarily originate from the anvil or the upper positive charge region and strike a rain-free area outside of the thunderstorm.
This belief is based on the outdated idea that lightning leaders are unipolar and originate from their respective charge region. Positive lightning strikes tend to be much more intense than their negative counterparts.
As a result of their greater power, positive lightning strikes are considerably more dangerous than negative strikes.
Positive lightning produces both higher peak currents and longer continuing currents, making them capable of heating surfaces to much higher levels which increases the likelihood of a fire being ignited.
The long distances positive lightning can propagate through clear air explains why they are known as "bolts from the blue", giving no warning to observers.
Despite the popular misconception that these are positive lightning strikes due to them seemingly originating from the positive charge region, observations have shown that these are in fact negative flashes.
They begin as intracloud flashes within the cloud, the negative leader then exits the cloud from the positive charge region before propagating through clear air and striking the ground some distance away.
Positive lightning has also been shown to trigger the occurrence of upward lightning flashes from the tops of tall structures and is largely responsible for the initiation of sprites several tens of kilometers above ground level.
Positive lightning tends to occur more frequently in winter storms , as with thundersnow , during intense tornadoes  and in the dissipation stage of a thunderstorm.
Lightning discharges may occur between areas of cloud without contacting the ground. When it occurs between two separate clouds it is known as inter-cloud lightning , and when it occurs between areas of differing electric potential within a single cloud it is known as intra-cloud lightning.
Intra-cloud lightning is the most frequently occurring type. Intra-cloud lightning most commonly occurs between the upper anvil portion and lower reaches of a given thunderstorm.
This lightning can sometimes be observed at great distances at night as so-called " sheet lightning ". In such instances, the observer may see only a flash of light without hearing any thunder.
Another term used for cloud—cloud or cloud—cloud—ground lightning is "Anvil Crawler", due to the habit of charge, typically originating beneath or within the anvil and scrambling through the upper cloud layers of a thunderstorm, often generating dramatic multiple branch strokes.
These are usually seen as a thunderstorm passes over the observer or begins to decay. The most vivid crawler behavior occurs in well developed thunderstorms that feature extensive rear anvil shearing.
Objects struck by lightning experience heat and magnetic forces of great magnitude. The heat created by lightning currents traveling through a tree may vaporize its sap, causing a steam explosion that bursts the trunk.
As lightning travels through sandy soil, the soil surrounding the plasma channel may melt, forming tubular structures called fulgurites. Although 90 percent of people struck by lightning survive,  humans or animals struck by lightning may suffer severe injury due to internal organ and nervous system damage.
Buildings or tall structures hit by lightning may be damaged as the lightning seeks unintended paths to ground. By safely conducting a lightning strike to ground, a lightning protection system, usually incorporating at least one lightning rod , can greatly reduce the probability of severe property damage.
Lightning also serves an important role in the nitrogen cycle by oxidizing diatomic nitrogen in the air into nitrates which are deposited by rain and can fertilize the growth of plants and other organisms.
Due to the conductive properties of Aluminium alloy , the fuselage acts as a Faraday cage. Because the electrostatic discharge of terrestrial lightning superheats the air to plasma temperatures along the length of the discharge channel in a short duration, kinetic theory dictates gaseous molecules undergo a rapid increase in pressure and thus expand outward from the lightning creating a shock wave audible as thunder.
Since the sound waves propagate not from a single point source but along the length of the lightning's path, the sound origin's varying distances from the observer can generate a rolling or rumbling effect.
Perception of the sonic characteristics is further complicated by factors such as the irregular and possibly branching geometry of the lightning channel, by acoustic echoing from terrain, and by the usually multiple-stroke characteristic of the lightning strike.
An observer can approximate the distance to the strike by timing the interval between the visible lightning and the audible thunder it generates.
A flash preceding thunder by five seconds would indicate a distance of approximately 1. Consequently, a lightning strike observed at a very close distance will be accompanied by a sudden clap of thunder, with almost no perceptible time lapse, possibly accompanied by the smell of ozone O 3.
Anecdotally, there are many examples of people saying 'the storm was directly overhead or all-around and yet there was no thunder'.
Since thunderclouds can be up to 20 km high  , lightning occurring high up in the cloud may appear close but is actually too far away to produce noticeable thunder.
In the same year University of Florida and Florida Tech researchers used an array of electric field and X-ray detectors at a lightning research facility in North Florida to confirm that natural lightning makes X-rays in large quantities during the propagation of stepped leaders.
The cause of the X-ray emissions is still a matter for research, as the temperature of lightning is too low to account for the X-rays observed.
A number of observations by space-based telescopes have revealed even higher energy gamma ray emissions, the so-called terrestrial gamma-ray flashes TGFs.
These observations pose a challenge to current theories of lightning, especially with the recent discovery of the clear signatures of antimatter produced in lightning.
The very high temperatures generated by lightning lead to significant local increases in ozone and oxides of nitrogen.
Volcanic activity produces lightning-friendly conditions in multiple ways. The enormous quantity of pulverized material and gases explosively ejected into the atmosphere creates a dense plume of particles.
The ash density and constant motion within the volcanic plume produces charge by frictional interactions triboelectrification , resulting in very powerful and very frequent flashes as the cloud attempts to neutralize itself.
Due to the extensive solid material ash content, unlike the water rich charge generating zones of a normal thundercloud, it is often called a dirty thunderstorm.
Lightning has been observed within the atmospheres of other planets , such as Jupiter and Saturn. Although in the minority on Earth, superbolts appear to be common on Jupiter.
Lightning on Venus has been a controversial subject after decades of study. During the Soviet Venera and U.
Pioneer missions of the s and s, signals suggesting lightning may be present in the upper atmosphere were detected.
Radio pulses recorded by the spacecraft Venus Express which began orbiting Venus in April may originate from lightning on Venus.
Thunder is heard as a rolling, gradually dissipating rumble because the sound from different portions of a long stroke arrives at slightly different times.
When the local electric field exceeds the dielectric strength of damp air about 3 megavolts per meter , electrical discharge results in a strike , often followed by commensurate discharges branching from the same path.
Mechanisms that cause the charges to build up to lightning are still a matter of scientific investigation. Rison Lightning may be caused by the circulation of warm moisture-filled air through electric fields.
Researchers at the University of Florida found that the final one-dimensional speeds of 10 flashes observed were between 1.
The earliest detector invented to warn of the approach of a thunder storm was the lightning bell. Benjamin Franklin installed one such device in his house.
Lightning discharges generate a wide range of electromagnetic radiations, including radio-frequency pulses. The times at which a pulse from a given lightning discharge arrives at several receivers can be used to locate the source of the discharge with a precision on the order of meters.
The United States federal government has constructed a nationwide grid of such lightning detectors, allowing lightning discharges to be tracked in real time throughout the continental U.
Electromagnetic pulses transmitted by lightning strikes propagate within that waveguide. The waveguide is dispersive, which means that their group velocity depends on frequency.
The difference of the group time delay of a lightning pulse at adjacent frequencies is proportional to the distance between transmitter and receiver.
Moreover, the eigenfrequencies of the Earth-ionospheric waveguide, the Schumann resonances at about 7.
In addition to ground-based lightning detection, several instruments aboard satellites have been constructed to observe lightning distribution.
Starting in , the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration launched Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite—R Series GOES-R weather satellites outfitted with Geostationary Lightning Mapper GLM instruments which are near-infrared optical transient detectors that can detect the momentary changes in an optical scene, indicating the presence of lightning.
The movement of electrical charges produces a magnetic field see electromagnetism. The intense currents of a lightning discharge create a fleeting but very strong magnetic field.
Where the lightning current path passes through rock, soil, or metal these materials can become permanently magnetized.
This effect is known as lightning-induced remanent magnetism, or LIRM. These currents follow the least resistive path, often horizontally near the surface   but sometimes vertically, where faults, ore bodies, or ground water offers a less resistive path.
Lightning-induced magnetic anomalies can be mapped in the ground,   and analysis of magnetized materials can confirm lightning was the source of the magnetization  and provide an estimate of the peak current of the lightning discharge.
Some high energy cosmic rays produced by supernovas as well as solar particles from the solar wind, enter the atmosphere and electrify the air, which may create pathways for lightning bolts.
In many cultures, lightning has been viewed as part of a deity or a deity in and of itself. Verses in the Jewish religion and in Islam also ascribe supernatural importance to lightning.
In Christianity , the Second Coming of Jesus is compared to lightning. The expression "Lightning never strikes twice in the same place " is similar to "Opportunity never knocks twice" in the vein of a "once in a lifetime" opportunity, i.
Lightning occurs frequently and more so in specific areas. Since various factors alter the probability of strikes at any given location, repeat lightning strikes have a very low probability but are not impossible.
Some political parties use lightning flashes as a symbol of power, such as the People's Action Party in Singapore , the British Union of Fascists during the s, and the National States' Rights Party in the United States during the s.
In French and Italian, the expression for "Love at first sight" is coup de foudre and colpo di fulmine , respectively, which literally translated means "lightning strike".
Some European languages have a separate word for lightning which strikes the ground as opposed to lightning in general ; often it is a cognate of the English word "rays".
The name of Australia's most celebrated thoroughbred horse, Phar Lap , derives from the shared Zhuang and Thai word for lightning.
The bolt of lightning in heraldry is called a thunderbolt and is shown as a zigzag with non-pointed ends. This symbol usually represents power and speed.
The lightning bolt is used to represent the instantaneous communication capabilities of electrically powered telegraphs and radios. It was a commonly used motif in Art Deco design, especially the zig-zag Art Deco design of the late s.
A lightning bolt is also the NATO symbol for a signal asset. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Lightning disambiguation.
For other uses, see Return stroke disambiguation. Not to be confused with Lighting. Weather phenomenon involving electrostatic discharge.
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Meteorology Climate change Tornado terms Tropical cyclone terms. Main article: Distribution of lightning. Main article: Thunderstorm.
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